What Do You Mean By Zero-based budgeting?

What Do You Mean By Zero-based budgeting?

Zero-based budgeting (ZBB)  is a method that starts doing budgets from the “zero Basis”. In this method, all Expenses must be justified and verified in each new period. 

This method is equally applicable for the various sorts of campaigns and individual use and families as well. Although these sorts of budgets are very much effective for keeping an eye over the monetary needs and records per se.

Zero-Based Budgeting is being discovered by peter Phyrr in the year of 1970. Although in general, this way forces the decision-makers to look at the Plans or business with fresh eyes. 

How Does Zero-based Budgeting Works?

In the business world, zero-based budgeting works on Forces of making zero Budgets into different organizes, measured and functional forms. This way world can fulfill the top-level strategies to be accomplished soon. This system world on the parameters of previous results and your current expectations. 

Eventually, Zero-based budgeting can help lower costs by avoiding blanket increases or decreases to a prior period’s budget. It is, however, a time-consuming process that takes much longer than traditional, cost-based budgeting.

Zero-based Budgeting Advantages?

There are multiple advantages of zero-based budgeting, which are being mentioned below are as follows – 

  • Accuracy – This system maintains accuracy. 
  • Efficiency – ZBB is the most efficient way to focus on the momentum of previous budgets. 
  • The balance among coordination and Combination – balance is a must for coordination and the combination as well. 
  • Reduced waste expenditures – this way helps you to reduce your waste expenditure weekly. 

Zero-based Budgeting Disadvantages?

There are some accumulated disadvantages of zero-based budgeting as well. hence, these are mentioned below as follows – 

It’s timely and intensely resource-intensive

– This is very much time and attention intensive because whenever you make the new budget for a particular period. Then it requires enough time.

Its short term perspective 

As it is a short-term perspective that can’t be run in the long-term perspective for a company to run the higher revenues specifically. 

Intangible Justifications 

This method requires a separate department for the different budgets. So, using these sorts of methods can be very difficult to apply at many stages. 

Let’s Understand The Concept Of Zero-based Budgeting With The Help Of An Example

Zero-Based Budgeting Example- Suppose a construction equipment company implements a zero-based budgeting process calling for closer scrutiny of manufacturing department expenses. The company notices that the cost of certain parts used in its final products and outsourced to another manufacturer increases by 10% every year. The company can make those parts in-house using its workers. After weighing the positives and negatives of in-house manufacturing, the company finds it can make the parts more cheaply than the outside supplier. 

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Historical Antecedents Of Zero-based Budgeting

Zero bases budgeting has evolved with long historical antecedents, which are being mentioned below – 

  • Peter Pyhrr, the person who invented this method is an account manager of texas instruments. 
  • He invented this way for his top-level incorporation objectives per se. It was made to process the functioning of the state into different organizations. 
  • Under this way of system, the amount is organized and measured against the previous cost of any portfolio. 
  • This way helps you to keep an eye on your expenditures and stabilize your budget.
  • This is a very effective tool for evaluating the expenses in this budgetary process. 
  • This way also helps the company to overcome their costs.
  • Even the zero Based budgeting was developed in 1969 in the united states of America at the texas instrument Inc. 
  • Afterward, the governor of Georgia was the one who adopted this method in the preparation of the 1973 Fiscal Budget.  

Zero-based Budgeting The Private Sector

  • The process of zero-based budgeting in the private spheres and public spheres is completely different things that take place differently. 
  • The ZBB in the private sector is restricted or you can say primarily limited to the administrative activities per se.  
  • Its main focus was on optimizing outputs available at alternative budgetary levels. 
  • Although if we take the example of the united states of America, most of the ZBB users are in executive, legislature, and other agency departments as well. 

Zero-based Budgeting In The Public Sector

To understand the role of zero-based Budgeting in the public sectors per se, there are multiple  Components for the ground understanding of the concept are as follows – 

  • The first thing, which has to be done is the formation of process building and the whole structure per se. Hence, this is called decision unit determination. 
  • Although the next mechanism that is being used mainly in the decision package formation for that matter. 
  • The next thing is that this system requires a lot of attention, time, and human resources as well. 

The Distinction Between Traditional Vs Zero-based Budgeting

Basic Difference Traditional Budgeting Zero Base Budgeting
Emphasis it is an accounting Oriented Emphasis on “how Much” It is more decision-oriented, emphasis on “why”
Approach it is monitoring towards the expenditures it is towards the Achievement of the Objective.
Focus to study the changes in the expenditures to study the cost-benefit analysis
Communication to operate only the Vertical communication it operates in both directions horizontally and vertically
Method it is based on the extrapolation i.e. from yesterday future projections are carried out   its decision package is totally based on the cost-benefit analysis.

 Traditional budgeting and zero-based budgeting are the two different ways to track or keep an eye on timely expenditures per se. 

Thus, the traditional budgeting method calls for a subtle increase in the previous budget. For example – if you increase your budget 2% from the last previous month. Then it would be the traditional budgeting method. 

Furthermore, Hypotically in the next month if you keep your budgeting amount the same then it would be zero-based on budgeting. 

Zero-based Budget In India

The concept of a zero-based budget is being initiated in India in 1983 at the department of science and technology. Furthermore, in the year of 1986, the government of Indian has adopted the zero-based budgeting method in practice. Zero-Based Budgeting In India

In fact, zero-based budgeting is still being practiced in different states of India. 

Even now, at this stage of our lives, we have seen less application for zero-based budgeting in India. Evnethoyugh recently union finance minister Nirmala Sitaraman has Proposed zero-based budgeting where she mentions “back to the basics” 


Overall, zero bases budgeting is a financial and managerial approach. This way helps the policymakers to accomplish the more cost-effectively to public services. Although the main focus of this method is to keep a record of business finances. Even though zero-based budgeting is more useful for private enterprises per se. Even many of them are getting the high revenues with that way only.  It basically identifies the effective and alternative methods to utilize the limited resources.

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